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Testimony on Global Warming
David Barton - 06/07/2007

Testimony of David Barton in the June 7, 20071

U. S. Senate Hearing on Global Warming in the

Environment and Public Works Committee

My name is David Barton. I represent a group that works to integrate faith with the many practical issues of daily life, and each year I personally speak to hundreds of religious groups from numerous different Christian denominations. I was honored to be named by Time Magazine as one of America’s twenty-five most influential Evangelicals, 2 meaning, of course, that I will address this issue from an Evangelical perspective.

Evangelicals are generally characterized by an adherence to what is considered a traditional – that is, a conservative – Biblical theology. While Gallup has placed the number of Evangelicals at 124 million and Barna at much less, most estimates place the number at about 100 million.3 Significantly, statistics demonstrate that the religious groups and denominations in America adhering to conservative theological views (such as Evangelicals) are growing in membership and affiliation,4 whereas those adhering to liberal theological views are declining. 5

In my experience, three factors influence how people of conservative religious faith – especially Evangelicals – approach the issue of man-caused Global Warming. The first is their theological view of man and the environment; the second is the perceived credibility of the scientific debate; and the third is how Evangelicals prioritize the issue of Global Warming among the other cultural and social issues of concern to them.

Concerning the first factor, a very accurate rendering of Evangelicals’ general theological position on the environment is presented in the Cornwall Declaration, 6 prepared by twenty-five conservative Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish theologians. In general, conservative people of faith view the creation in Genesis as moving upward in an ascending spiritual hierarchy, beginning with the creation of the lowest (the inanimate) and moving toward the highest (the animate), with the creation of man and woman being the capstone of God’s work. God placed man and woman over creation, not under it;7 man and woman interacted with nature and the environment, they were not isolated from it.8 As the Cornwall Declaration explains, there is no conservative theological basis for the current belief of environmentalists that “humans [are] principally consumers and polluters rather than producers and stewards,” and that “nature knows best,” or that “the earth, untouched by human hands is the ideal.”9 Religious conservatives believe just the opposite; and as my orthodox Jewish Rabbi friend reminded me just last week, the Scriptures teach conservation, not preservation. Man is the steward of nature and the environment and is definitely to tend and guard it, but it is to serve him, not vice versa.10 From the beginning, God strongly warned against elevating nature and the environment over humans and their Creator.11 This generally summarizes the theology common among Evangelicals on this point.

The second factor influencing conservative religious adherents is the credibility of the scientific debate; and when something is still debated as heavily as is the issue of man-caused Global Warming, and when there is still not a clear consensus, Evangelicals tend to approach that issue with great skepticism. Significantly, in 1992, Al Gore declared: “Only an insignificant fraction of scientists deny the global warming crisis. The time for debate is over. The science is settled.”12 Yet a Gallup Poll that same year revealed that “53% of scientists actively involved in global climate research did not believe [man-caused] global warming had occurred; 30% weren’t sure; and only 17% believed [man-caused] global warming had begun.”13 Clearly, despite Gore’s claims to the contrary, there was much more than “an insignificant fraction of scientists” denying that there was a man-caused Global Warming crisis.

Now, fifteen years later, there still is no consensus. For example, even though 2,500 of the world’s top scientists agree with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assertions about man-caused Global Warming,14 well over 10,000 scientists do not.15 Recent national articles have attempted to draw attention to this fact (see, for example, an editorial in the Wall Street Journal by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Atmospheric Science Professor Richard Lindzen declaring: “There is no ‘Consensus’ on Global Warming”;16 “They Call This A Consensus?” in the Canada Financial Post17 Yet, when such truthful claims are made, those making them are aggressively attacked by the Global Warming supporters, whose counter-claims are eagerly broadcast by the mainstream media. For example, when NASA head Michael Griffin recently stated that he did not see Global Warming as a “problem we must wrestle with,” >18outspoken Global Warming promoter James Hansen (called “a grandfather of the Global Warming theory”19) immediately and fiercely attacked the NASA chief, telling national news reporters: “It’s an incredibly arrogant and ignorant statement. It indicates a complete ignorance of understanding the implications of climate change.” >20 Even though numerous scientists across the globe sided with NASA chief Griffin,21 their voices were unreported. Griffin eventually acknowledged that he wished “he’d stayed out of the debate on climate effects,” noting that “this is an issue which has become far more political than technical.”22 There are many others in the scientific community who are unwilling to openly air their view for fear of being similarly attacked in what truly is a much more of a political than a technical debate.

The lack of consensus in the scientific community is paralleled in the Evangelical community. For example, although more than 100 religious leaders in a highly-publicized announcement signed onto the Evangelical Climate Initiative on Global Warming calling for immediate action on what they believed was man-caused Global Warming,23 more than 1,500 religious leaders signed onto the Cornwall Declaration that reached quite different conclusions;24 yet that much larger declaration went without media notice.

Many Evangelicals, like many scientists, are skeptical on the issue of man-caused Global Warming; and in the case of Evangelicals, their skepticism is heightened by their memory of previous politically-driven “scientific” consensuses. For example:

  • Twenty years ago the scientific community proclaimed that fetal tissue research held the solution for many of the world’s health problems, but the science on that issue has subsequently proven to be a complete bust.25

  • In the 1960s, environmental scientists warned that the Global Population Bomb would soon doom the entire planet;26 in the 1980s as population growth continued to increase, they further warned that by the year 2000, economic growth would be destroyed .27 and there would be a worldwide unemployment crisis.28 The world population has almost doubled since those predictions, but the current worldwide unemployment rate is only 6.3 percent, .29 and worldwide economic growth is and has been booming for many years.

  • In the 1960s,environmental scientists similarly claimed that DDT harmed humans and caused cancer, thus resulting in a near worldwide ban on the use of that pesticide. Now, four decades later, the scientific community has found no harm to humans from DDT,30 so it has been reintroduced to fight the mosquitoes that carry malaria. .31 Regrettably, in the intervening years, between one and two million persons each year needlessly died each year from malaria because DDT had been banned.32

    Recent years have been filled with scientific claims that embryonic stem-cell research holds the cure for human maladies from Alzheimer’s to diabetes to the reversal of spinal cord injuries and everything in between.33 However, after twenty-five years of embryonic stem-cell research, not a single cure has been documented,34 yet during the same time, adult stem-cell research has produced dozens of documented cures for some of mankind’s most serious medical problems.35

  • For more than a century, scientists have asserted unaided materialistic evolution – that God had no part in the appearance of man. Yet, despite a century of this aggressive “scientific” indoctrination, today only 12-18 percent of the nation accepts that position; some eighty percent do not believe what “science” avows on this issue.36

  • Less than a decade ago, science was warning of the worldwide problems that would result from the world arriving at a new millennia – a problem known as Y2K, or the millennium bug. It was viewed as an impending disaster, and after U. S. Senators received a 160-page report on the issue in a closed-door briefing session, “Senator Christopher Dodd, Democrat of Connecticut, advised citizens to stock up on canned goods. Senator Gordon Smith, an Oregon Republican, suggested that passengers ask airlines about Y2K before boarding a plane this New Year’s Eve. Senator Robert Bennett, Republican of Utah, said there was a great likelihood of economic disruptions around the world . . . [and] would not rule out the possibility of intercontinental warfare as a result of Y2K.”37 States such as Ohio built underground bunkers into which they moved state operations in preparation for the coming massive failures; the U. S. military and National Guard were put on alert; the U. S. Treasury printed an additional $200 million in extra currency; and the FBI created a special division to deal with the problems. The U. S. spent some $225 billion to address an impending disaster based on what turned out to be inaccurate scientific warnings.38

  • In the 1970s, scientists claimed that aerosols were a leading cause of harm to the environment,39 but a recent report now shows that “Aerosols actually have a cooling effect on global temperatures” which helps “cancel out the warming effect of CO2.”40

In short, science – especially environmental science – has a demonstrated pattern of announcing strong and emphatic conclusions and then later reversing itself.

Further buoying the current skepticism about man-caused Global Warming is the fact that the scientific clamor about radical climate change has been occurring for almost a century. For example, in the 1920s, the newspapers were filled with scientists warning of a fast approaching Glacial Age; but in the 1930s, scientists reversed themselves and instead predicted serious Global Warming.41 But by 1972, Time was citing numerous scientific reports warning of imminent “runaway glaciation,”42 and in 1975, Newsweek reported overwhelming scientific evidence that proved an approaching Ice Age, with scientists warning the government to stockpile food; proposals were even advanced to melt the artic ice cap in an effort to help forestall the oncoming Ice Age.43 In fact, in 1976, the U. S. Government itself even released a study affirming that “the earth is heading into some sort of mini-ice age.”44 Now, however, just a few years later, the warning of an imminent Ice Age has been replaced with the warning of an impending Global Warming disaster. In less than a century, environmental science has completely reversed itself on this issue no less than three times.

Yet, in deference to the scientific community, some of the reversals in their predictions are completely understandable, for the scientific community was merely responding to the changing temperature trends as measured at the Artic. For example, notice that on the chart below, the temperature did indeed fall throughout the 1920s, rise throughout the 1930s, fall throughout the 1960s, and has been rising since the 1980s. However, is the current temperature rise man-caused as environmental activists and liberals claim, or might it stem from something else? Harvard astrophysicist Dr. Willie Soon has correlated the last century of temperature changes to solar activity rather than to human activity producing increased carbon-dioxide emissions.45 Those charts therefore suggest that unless Congress can pass legislation controlling the sun, it is unlikely that restricting human activity will have any significant effect in reducing the rising global temperatures.

Another indication of the current volatility of the science among Global Warming proponents is the fact that they are reversing themselves even on their own recent claims. For example, just a few years ago scientists predicted that the seas would rise from 20 to 40 feet because of Global Warming,46 with “waves crashing against the steps of the U.S. Capitol” that would “launch boats from the bottom of the Capitol steps”; additionally, one-third of Florida and large parts of Texas were projected to be under water.47 Now, however, the estimates have been revised radically downward to a maximum water rise of anywhere from only a few inches to just a few feet at most.48 Clearly, the science on this issue continues to oscillate; in fact, Senator Inhofe is one of many who have tracked the number of leading scientists who, after announcing their position in support of anthropogenic Global Warming, have reversed that position upon further research. This lack of consensus, coupled with the issuing of so many forceful assertions followed by subsequent repudiations, certainly merits a very cautious and guarded approach to any proposed congressional policy on this subject.

The truth is that Evangelicals and people of conservative religious faith are very comfortable with theological teachings that have been proved correct for millennia, but not with science that often reverses its own claims on the same issue. And while science is still debating the causes of Global Warming and trying to decide where the ocean waves will end up, religious conservatives rest in the many promises of the Scriptures. For example, in Genesis 8:21-22, God promised that the natural cycles would continue (“While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease”); and Psalm 104:9 declares: “You set a boundary that they [the waters] may not pass over, so that they will not return to cover the earth”; and in Jeremiah 5:22, God asks: “Will you not tremble at My presence, Who have placed the sand as the bound of the sea by a perpetual decree that it [the sea] cannot pass beyond it? And though its waves toss to and fro, yet they cannot prevail.” To date, neither science nor experience has disproved the promises of those Scriptures. Considering not only the theological beliefs of Evangelicals but also the rapidly-changing science surrounding anthropogenic Global Warming, the skepticism of religious conservatives on this issue is understandable.

The third factor affecting Evangelicals’ approach to man-caused Global Warming is how they rank that issue among other issues of importance to them, for Evangelicals are concerned about many issues, not just one. In fact, polls indicate that it is not conservative Christians who are fixated with single issues such as abortion but rather it is liberals. As a recent poll on Americans’ views toward the judiciary reported, for liberals, “no other issue rivals abortion in importance,” but among Evangelicals, “three-quarters . . .view abortion as very important, [and] nearly as many place great importance on court rulings on the rights of detained terrorist suspects (69%) and whether to permit religious displays on government property (68%).” =49 Very simply, Evangelicals tend to have many issues of importance on their list of concerns, not just one. So where does the issue of man-caused Global Warming rank on that list of concerns?

Current polling shows that Evangelicals are not cohesive about the issue;60 and while 12 percent of the nation overall ranks Global Warming as a top priority issue,51 less than 6 percent of Evangelicals do so.52 However, they do remain the most cohesive group in the nation on many other issues, including their opposition to abortion, gay marriage, and civil unions;53 in teaching teenagers to abstain from sex until marriage;54 and in support of public religious expressions.55 In fact, in this latter area, among Evangelicals, 99.5 percent support public displays of the Ten Commandments; 99 percent support keeping the phrase “In God We Trust” on the nation’s currency; 96 percent support keeping “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance; and 86 percent support teaching Creationism in the public school classroom; additionally, 94 percent oppose allowing the use of profanity on broadcast television.56 It is unlikely that Global Warming will overshadow these other issues at anytime in the near future.

One other issue on which Evangelicals show cohesive support is in global efforts to fight extreme poverty: not only do 90 percent support such efforts,57 but 87 percent directly cite their Evangelical faith as the reason for “helping those less fortunate than [them]selves.”58 Yet, significantly, the poor will suffer most under the current “cap and trade” policy proposals for reducing man-caused Global Warming. (Under “cap & trade” programs, a “cap” is set on the total amount of emissions permitted and companies may then buy and “trade” to receive permits to release emissions). Independent analyses affirm that “cap and trade” programs definitely will be “regressive” – that is, there will definitely be higher consumer costs caused by the programs, and those higher costs will be felt most directly by the poor who least can afford to bear those costs as the price they pay for energy and utilities will soar. (See, for example, the April 27, 2007, report from the Congressional Budget Office 59 or the report “A Call to Truth, Prudence, and Protection of the Poor: An Evangelical Response to Global Warming” from the Interfaith Stewardship Alliance.60 Given the fact that the current proposals will harshly impact the poor in developing nations and dramatically impede their hopes for a more prosperous life, it is even less likely that Evangelicals will place the theoretical needs of the environment above the actual needs of the poor.

In summary, the three primary factors influencing how Evangelicals respond to the current vigorous debate on Global Warming are: (1) their theological views of man and his relationship to nature and the environment; (2) their skepticism over scientific disputes until a clear and unambiguous consensus has emerged; and (3) their ranking of that issue within the list of the many other issues of concern to them. (Of course, the fact the climate-change agenda is being so aggressively promoted by the same groups which regularly oppose Evangelicals on core issues of faith and values further exacerbates Evangelicals’ suspicion about anthropogenic, or man-caused, Global Warming.) Currently, I do not find any substantial widespread movement in the mainstream Evangelical community to support any policy proposal on Global Warming that would significantly alter the way individuals now live, or that might inflict additional burdens on the poor and potentially confine them to a permanent state of poverty. Based on these points, I urge extreme caution in crafting any legislative policy on this issue.


Endnotes
1. At the time this document was being prepared for submission to the Senate Committee, additional inquiries were still underway by the author; that information was not available in time for the hearing, but was subsequently submitted to the Committee and then added to this document, thus making it slightly different from what was originally submitted to the Senate Committee. Additionally, this document also incorporates much of what the author presented orally during the question and answer period with the Senators.(Return)

2. Time, “The 25 Most Influential Evangelicals In America” (at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101050207/photoessay/3.html).(Return)

3. See, for example, Wheaton College, “Defining Evangelicalism” (at http://www.wheaton.edu/isae/defining_evangelicalism.html).(Return)

4. Such as the National Association of Evangelicals, which now represents about 30 million people from 60 member denominations as well as individual churches from numerous other denominations (at National Association of Evangelicals, “Benefits of Membership”) (at http://www.nae.net/index.cfm?FUSEACTION=nae.benefits).(Return)

5. For example, mainline churches that make up organizations such as the National Council of Churches have lost over 35 percent of their members since the 1970s. “The National Council of Churches (NCC) now receives more funding from private foundations, most of them secular and politically liberal, than from its member denominations, it was revealed at its fall 2005 Governing Board meeting. In the fiscal year ending in June 2005, the NCC received $1,761,714 from liberal foundations, compared to $1,750,332 from its 35 member churches. The foundations include the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Tides Foundation, the Better World Fund, the Sierra Club, the AARP, the Ocean Conservancy, and the National Religious Partnership on the Environment,” from Touchstone, “NCC Exit Poll” (at http://www.touchstonemag.com/archives/article.php?id=19-02-057-r).(Return)

6. Available at Interfaith Coalition for Environmental Stewardship, “A Call to Truth, Prudence and Protection of the Poor” (at http://www.cornwallalliance.org/calltotruth ); or Acton Institute, “Cornwall Declaration” (at http://www.acton.org/ppolicy/environment/cornwall.html); or Texas Public Policy Foundation, “VERITAS: Summer, 2000: Cornwall Declaration on Environmental Stewardship” (at http://www.texaspolicy.com/pdf/2000-veritas-1-2-cornwall.pdf).(Return)

7. In Matthew 10:31 and Luke 12:7, Christ reminds man that “You are of more value than many sparrows,” and Psalm 8:6-8 declares: “You have made man to have dominion over the works of Your hands; You have put all things under his feet, all animal, birds, and fish, whether on land or in the sea.” (Return)

8. In Genesis 1:25-29, God created all, and then placed man over his creation to interact with all of it, whether animate or inanimate. (Return)

9. The Cornwall Alliance (at http://www.cornwallalliance.org ).(Return)

10. Genesis2:8-20 records man’s stewardship and interaction with creation, not his removal from it. God put him in the Garden to tend and keep it; and God brought his creation before Adam, who named it all. (Return)

11. See, for example, Romans 1:20-25; for instances where man wrongly turned their primary focus toward animals and the creation rather than the Creator; see also Exodus 32:7-9, 34-35; 2 Kings 17:14-16l 2 Kings 18:3-5; 2 Chronicles 11:14-15; Nehemiah 9:17-19; Psalms 106:19-23; Ezekiel 8:9-12; Acts 7:40-42; etc. (Return)

12. Financial Post, “They call this a consensus?” (at http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?
id=c47c1209-233b-412c-b6d1-5c755457a8af
).(Return)

13. Financial Post, “They call this a consensus?” (at http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?
id=c47c1209-233b-412c-b6d1-5c755457a8af
).(Return)

14. Financial Post, “They call this a consensus?” (at http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?
id=c47c1209-233b-412c-b6d1-5c755457a8af
).(Return)

15. Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, “Overview: Research and Development” (at http://www.oism.org/pproject/s33p357.html, “Petition Project: Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide” (at http://www.oism.org/pproject/s33p36.htm), “Petition Project: Information” (at http://www.oism.org/pproject/s33p357.htm), and “Petition Project: List of Signers by State” (at http://www.oism.org/pproject/s33p403.htm)).(Return)

16. Wall Street Journal Online, “There is No ‘Consensus’ on Global Warming” (at http://online.wsj.com/article_print/SB115127582141890238.html).(Return)

17. Financial Post, “They call this a consensus?” (at http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?id=c47c1209-233b-412c-b6d1-5c755457a8af).(Return)

18. ABC News, “NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Questions Need to Combat Warming,” (at http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=3229696&page=1).(Return)

19. See, for example, articles at Harmonious Living, “A New Global Warming Strategy” (at http://www.harmoniousliving.co.za/Environment/Eco-Friendly/A-New-Global-Warming-Strategy/); Veganica.com, “Biggest Cause of Global Warming Ignored” (at http://veganica.com/info/news.php?id=34); Energy Tribune, “Global Warming: Witnesses for the Skeptical Perspective” (at http://www.energytribune.com/articles.cfm?aid=500); and others. (Return)

20. ABC News, “NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Questions Need to Combat Warming,” (at http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=3229696&page=1).(Return)

21. E-Wire, “Scientists Rally Around NASA Chief After Global Warming Comments” (at http://www.ewire.com/display.cfm/Wire_ID/3967).(Return)

22. See, for example, MSNBC, “NASA chief regrets remarks on global warming” (at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19058588/).(Return)

23. Evangelical Climate Initiative, “Climate Change: An Evangelical Call to Action” (at http://www.christiansandclimate.org/statement).(Return)

24. Interfaith Stewardship Alliance, “About ISA” (at http://www.interfaithstewardship.org/pages/aboutisa.php).(Return)

25. See, for example, testimony of Andrew Kimbrell of the International Center for Technology Assessment before the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee on February 5, 2002, from United States Senate, “Committee on the Judiciary: Human Cloning: Must We Sacrifice Medical Research in the Name of a Total Ban?”(at http://judiciary.senate.gov/testimony.cfm?id=147&wit_id=129).(Return)

26. See, for example, Paul R. Ehrlich, The Population Bomb (New York: Ballantine Books, 1968), and many other books and articles. (Return)

27. “Get Serious About Population,” The New York Times, April 12, 1984, A-26. (Return)

28. Warren Brown, “A Population Bomb: Report Warns Increase in Children May Trigger Third-World Unrest,” The Washington Post, March 10, 1979, A-2; see also “The Right Number of American,” The New York Times, February 2, 1989, A-24; “We are too many,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), September 14, 1983; “Our crowded planet,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), December 26, 1985. (Return)

29. International Labour Office, Global Employment Trends” (at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/download/trnden03.pdf).(Return)

30. Africa Fighting Malaria, “Dr. Conyers, I Presume” (at http://www.fightingmalaria.org/article.aspx?id=785); Spiked, “Without DDT, malaria bites back” (at http://www.spiked-online.com/Articles/000000005591.htm).(Return)

31. Africa Fighting Malaria, “Dr. Conyers, I Presume” (at http://www.fightingmalaria.org/article.aspx?id=785); Spiked, “Without DDT, malaria bites back” (at http://www.spiked-online.com/Articles/000000005591.htm).(Return)

32. Africa Fighting Malaria, “Dr. Conyers, I Presume” (at http://www.fightingmalaria.org/article.aspx?id=785); Canada Free Press, “Forty years of perverse ‘social responsibility’” (at http://www.canadafreepress.com/2007/driessen032607.htm); Spiked, “Without DDT, malaria bites back” (at http://www.spiked-online.com/Articles/000000005591.htm).(Return)

33. See, for example, National Institute of Health, “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Healthcare Questions: Why are doctors and scientists so excited about human embryonic stem cells?” (at (Return)

34.See, for example, National Review, “Nascent Falsehood: If embryonic research is so promising, why do its backers need to lie?” (at http://article.nationalreview.com/?
q=NWIyMjNmODVlMTQ5OTM0MjFmZTk2YmEyMzlmZDcyOTA
); New York Sun, “Empty Hope Of Stem Cell Science” (at http://www.nysun.com/article/45658); Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics, “Where’s The Beef” (at http://www.stemcellresearch.org/facts/WheresTheBeef.pdf) citing Diana Kapp, “The $3 Billion Cell Job,” San Francisco, January, 2005 (acknowledging “Not a single embryonic stem cell has ever been tested in a human being, for any disease”); National Review, “Science’s Stem-Cell Scam: It should change its name to Pseudoscience” (at http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=YjliM2MwZTU1MzI5NTc
2ZWFhNTE1NmMwNzNhZDA3MGM
); and many others. (Return)

35. See, for example, CorCell, “Expectant Families: Diseases Treated with Stem Cells” (at http://www.corcell.com/expectant/diseases_treated.html); Lifenews.com, “Science’s New Era Centers On Adult, Not Embryonic Stem Cell Research” (at http://www.medicaldaily.net/link.asp?ID=211501&Title=Science's%20New%20Era%20Centers%20On%20Adult,%20Not%20Embryonic%20Stem%20Cell%20Research); National Review, “Science’s Stem-Cell Scam: It should change its name to Pseudoscience” (at http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=YjliM2MwZTU1MzI5NTc
2ZWFhNTE1NmMwNzNhZDA3MGM
); The Washington Times, “Adult stem cells produce treatment breakthroughs” (at http://www.washingtontimes.com/functions/print.php?StoryID=20031228-114541-5034r); Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics, “Where’s The Beef? Hint: Not with Embryonic Stem Cells” (at http://www.stemcellresearch.org/facts/WheresTheBeef.pdf); and many others. (Return)

36. For example, the contrast was 13% v. 78% in the March 28-29, 2007 Newsweek Poll, and 13% v. 82% in the May 8-11, 2006 Gallup Poll, and 17% v. 76% in the April 6-9, 2006 CBS Poll, and 12% v. 84% in the September 8-11, 2005 in CNN/USA Today Poll, from PollingReport.com, “Science and Nature: Origin of Human Life” (at http://www.pollingreport.com/science.htm); etc.(Return)

37. United States Senate, “Committee on Small Business & Entrepreneurship: Senate Y2K Watchers Sound Muted Alarm” (at http://www.sbc.senate.gov/comm/small_business/general/record.cfm?id=191131).(Return)

38. For a collage of the various articles chronicling the government’s preparedness actions, see Cinemonky, “Y2K Emergency Update” (at http://www.cinemonkey.com/reviews/redden/y2k.html).(Return)

39. Center for International Earth Science Information Network, “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion” (at http://www.ciesin.org/docs/011-464/011-464.html); citing W. Sullivan. “Tests Show Aerosol Gases May Pose Threat to Earth,” New York Times, 26 September 1974, A1. (Return)

40. EarthSave, “A New Global Warming Strategy: How Environmentalists are Overlooking Vegetarianism as the Most Effective Tool Against Climate Change in Our Lifetimes” (at http://earthsave.org/globalwarming.htm).(Return)

41. Chicago Daily Tribune, August 9, 1923, “Scientist Says Arctic Ice Will Wipe Out Canada”; Los Angeles Times, October 7, 1932, “Fifth Ice Age Is On The Way”; Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1924, “New Ice-Age is Forecast”; Los Angeles Times, March 11, 1929, “Is Another Ice Age Coming?”; New York Times, February 24, 1867, “The Glacial Period”; New York Times, February 24, 1895, “Prospects of Another Glacial Period”; New York Times, October 7, 1912, “Sees Glacial Era Coming”; New York Times, June 10, 1923, “Menace of a New Ice Age to be Tested by Scientists”; New York Times, September 28, 1924, “MacMillan Reports Signs of New Ice Age”; New York Times, January 27, 1972, “Climate Experts Assay Ice Age Clues”; New York Times, May 21, 1975, “Scientists Ask Why World Climate Is Changing”; “Major Cooling May Be Ahead”; Washington Post, August 10, 1923, “Volcanoes in Australia”; “Ice Age Coming Here”; Washington Post, October 28, 1928, “An Ice-Free World, What Then?”; Washington Post, August 2, 1930,”Hot Weather”; Washington Post, May 3, 1932, “Second World Flood Seen, if Earth’s Heat Increases”; Washington Post, January 11, 1970, “Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age”; Atlantic, December 1932, “This Cold, Cold World”; Fortune, August 1954, “Climate – the Heat May Be Off”; International Wildlife, July-August 1975, “In the Grip of a New Ice Age?”; Newsweek, April 28, 1975, “The Cooling World”; Science News, Nov 15, 1969, “Earth’s Cooling Climate”; Science News, March 1, 1975, “Climate Change: Chilling Possibilities”; Time, January 2, 1939, “Warmer World”; Time, October 29, 1951, “Retreat of the Cold”; Time, June 24, 1974, “Another Ice Age?”; U.S. News & World Report, May 31, 1976, “Worrisome CIA Report; Even U.S. Farms May be Hit by Cooling Trend.” See Business & Media Institute, “Fire and Ice” (at http://www.businessandmedia.org/specialreports/2006/fireandice/fireandice.asp).(Return)

42. Time, “Another Ice Age?” (at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,910467,00.html).(Return)

43. “The Cooling World,” Newsweek, April 28, 1975. See also RealClearPolitics, “George Will: Cooler Heads Needed on Warming” (at< a href=”http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2006/04/cooler_heads_needed_on_warming.html” target=”blank”>http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2006/04/cooler_heads_needed_on_warming.html): citing Science magazine (Dec. 10, 1976) warned of “extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation.” Science Digest (February 1973) reported that “the world’s climatologists are agreed” that we must “prepare for the next ice age.” The Christian Science Monitor (“Warning: Earth’s Climate is Changing Faster Than Even Experts Expect,” Aug. 27, 1974) reported that glaciers “have begun to advance,” “growing seasons in England and Scandinavia are getting shorter” and “the North Atlantic is cooling down about as fast as an ocean can cool.” Newsweek agreed (“The Cooling World,” April 28, 1975) that meteorologists “are almost unanimous” that catastrophic famines might result from the global cooling that the New York Times (Sept. 14, 1975) said “may mark the return to another ice age.” The Times (May 21, 1975) also said “a major cooling of the climate is widely considered inevitable” now that it is “well established” that the Northern Hemisphere’s climate “has been getting cooler since about 1950.” . . . “About the mystery that vexes ABC – Why have Americans been slow to get in lock step concerning global warming? – perhaps the . . . problem is big crusading journalism.” (Return)

44. “Worrisome CIA report; Even U.S. Farms May Be Hit By Cooling Trend,” U. S. News & World Report, May 31, 1976. (Return)

45. Charts prepared and presented by Harvard astrophysicist Dr. Willie Soon, “Remarks for the Council on National Policy Meeting,” May 11, 2007 (at www.acton.org/blog/uploads/frcpanelhandout.pdf).(Return)

46. See, for example, Sea Grant New York, “Trouble on the Rise” (at http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/Pages/CoastalGISMaps/Newsday-Future.htm ); ClimateChangesFutures.org, “Climate Changes Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions” (at http://www.climatechangefutures.org/pdf/CCF_Report_Final_10.27.pdf ); Environmental Defense, “Global Warming’s Increasingly Visible Impacts” (at http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/4891_GlobalWarmingImpacts.pdf).(Return)

47. Robert Locke, AP Science Writer, January 8, 1979, coving the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, Christian Science Monitor, October 8, 1980. (Return)

48. See, for example, Environmental Defense, “Global Warming’s Increasingly Visible Impacts” (at http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/4891_GlobalWarmingImpacts.pdf); Washingtonpost.com, “We’re All New Orleanians Now” (at http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/1099011601.html?dids=1099011601:1099011601&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&fmac=&date=Aug+20%2C+2006&author=Mike+Tidwell&desc=We%27re+All+New+Orleanians+Now” target=”blank); Sea Grant New York, “Trouble on the Rise” (at http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/Pages/CoastalGISMaps/Newsday-Future.htm ); ClimateChangesFutures.org, “Climate Changes Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions” (at http://www.climatechangefutures.org/pdf/CCF_Report_Final_10.27.pdf).(Return)

49. Pew Research Center, “Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues” (at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=253).(Return)

50. ABCNews/Time/Stanford Poll: Global Warming; March 26, 2006, (at www.climate.noaa.gov/education/pdfs/SIEABCReleaseonGWpoll.pdf), p. 7 that “There’s been interest in the views of evangelical white Protestants . . . since 86 evangelical leaders last month signed a statement citing ‘general agreement’ among scientists working on the issue that climate change is happening, and urging federal legislation to deal with it. This survey, however, finds little resonance for that statement among evangelical white Protestants.” (Return)

51. MarketWatch, “Political climate changing on global warming” (at http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/political-climate-changing-global-warming/story.aspx?guid=%7B11B777E4%2D22AC%2D4175%2D8CE4%2D1911B1A1005B%7D ).(Return)

52. OneNewsNow, “POLL: Priority of 'global warming' for evangelicals” (at http://www.onenewsnow.com/2007/06/poll_priority_of_global_warmin.php).(Return)

53. Pew Research Center, “Pragmatic Americans Liberal and Conservative on Social Issues” (at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=283).(Return)

54. Pew Research Center, “Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues” (at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=253).(Return)

55. Pew Research Center, “Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues” (at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=253).(Return)

56. The Christian Post, “Barna Poll: 33 Percent of Adults Agree with Declaring America a ‘Christian Nation’” (at _of_Adults_Agree_with_Declaring_America_a_%22Christian_Nation%22.htm” target=”blank”>http://www.christianpost.com/article/20040731/20420_Barna_Poll:_33_Percent_of_Adults_Agree_with_Declaring_America_a_%22Christian_Nation%22.htm).(Return)

57. Roundtable on Religion and Social Welfare Policy, “Poll: Faith Sometimes Drives Support for AIDS, Poverty Relief” (at http://www.socialpolicyandreligion.org/article_index/article_print.cfm?id=2155).(Return)

58. Roundtable on Religion and Social Welfare Policy, “Poll: Faith Sometimes Drives Support for AIDS, Poverty Relief” (at http://www.socialpolicyandreligion.org/article_index/article_print.cfm?id=2155).(Return)

59. Congressional Budget Office, “Trade-Offs in Allocating Allowances for CO2 Emissions” (at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/80xx/doc8027/04-25-Cap_Trade.pdf).(Return)

60. Cornwall Alliance, “A Call to Truth, Prudence, and Protection of the Poor: An Evangelical Response to Global Warming” (at http://www.cornwallalliance.org/docs/Call_to_Truth.pdf); Cornwall Alliance (at http://www.cornwallalliance.org).(Return)

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